Archive

Tag Archives: Glasnevin Cemetery

10_NR

10 Newbridge Avenue, Sandymount.

    All waited. Then wheels were heard from in front, turning: then nearer: horses’ hoof. A jolt. Their carriage began to move, creaking and swaying. Other hoofs and creaking wheels started behind. The blinds of the avenue passed and number ten with its craped knocker, door ajar. At walking pace.

James Joyce, The Little Review “Ulysses” (p. 78).

9_NewbridgeAvenue

9 Newbridge Avenue, Sandymount.

    All waited. Then wheels were heard from in front, turning: then nearer: horses’ hoof. A jolt. Their carriage began to move, creaking and swaying. Other hoofs and creaking wheels started behind. The blinds of the avenue passed and number nine with its craped knocker, door ajar. At walking pace.

James Joyce, Ulysses (p. 72).

Route map from http://www.runkeeper.com

Route map from www.runkeeper.com

The quotations above from Ulysses refer to the beginning of the funeral procession from Paddy Dignam’s house in Newbridge Avenue, Sandymount, from where it begins to make its way to Glasnevin Cemetery. The two quotes are identical save for the change in house number from number ten to number nine.

The first quote is from the book The Little Review “Ulysses” which gathers together the serialised Chapters of Ulysses from The Little Review. The episode was originally published in The Little Review in September 1918 and episodes were published as a book in 2015. The second, revised quote is from Ulysses as published in 1922.

Episode VI, known as the Hades Chapter was published in The Little Review in September 1918 in the United States. Episodes 1- XIV were published in serial form, but stopped before the book was complete, due to censorship issues. The full address of the house, as opposed to just the number of the house the procession is passing, 9 Newbridge Avenue, does not appear in print until Ulysses was published as a novel in 1922 where the address is listed in the Eumaeus episode towards the end of the book, when Bloom reads it in the obituary section of the Telegraph whilst in the cabman’s shelter near Butt Bridge.

Why did Joyce change the house numbers? In the Thom’s Directory of 1904, which Joyce used as a reference check for places and people listed in Ulysses, the house at 9 Newbridge Avenue is listed as vacant, whereas the house at 10 Newbridge Avenue is occupied by a Mr. P Gorman. Perhaps Joyce simply wanted to use an empty house in case of a law suit over the use of an occupied premises He had had more than enough trouble with Dubliners over similar issues. As the location was to be the scene of the death and removal of the occupant, Paddy Dignam, the issues were perhaps more sensitive than most.

36_BengalTerrace

36 Bengal Terrace, formerly 5 Bengal Terrace, Finglas.

This funeral procession begins with house numbers that were changed as Joyce’s writing developed. At the end of the Dignam funeral procession, as Glasnevin Cemetery is reached, a mistaken house location arises.

       Mr. Power pointed.
That is where Childs was murdered, he said. The last house.
—So it is , Mr Dedalus said. A gruesome case. Seymour Bushe got him off.
Murdered his brother. Or so they said.

—The crown had no evidence, Mr Power said.
—Only circumstantial, Martin Cunningham added. That’s the maxim of the law. Better for ninety-nine guilty to escape than for one innocent person to be wrongfully condemned.

James Joyce, Ulysses (p.82).

The Childs murder did not take place in the last house, which was number 6 Bengal Terrace. The terrace consists of 6 houses as you can see in the image below. Thomas Childs lived in house number 5, the second last house in the terrace and the second house from the left in the image. Glasnevin Cemetery is immediately to the left of the photograph, adjoining the last house in the terrace. It could be that Joyce is mistaken, or it could be that he wants Simon Dedalus to be mistaken about the location of the Childs murder. Joyce knew Bengal Terrace well, as did his father, John Stanislaus Joyce, the model for Simon Dedalus. James Joyce’s aunt Josephine Giltrap’s family lived there.

BengalTerrace

Bengal Terrace, Finglas. Image from Apple Maps.

Thomas Childs was murdered on September 2nd 1899. His brother, Samuel Childs was charged with the murder. The Childs case is examined in-depth in Adrian Hardiman’s book, Joyce in Court, James Joyce and the Law.

Hardiman writes about the Giltrap’s.

   Josephine’s father, James Giltrap, a legal cost accountant, provides the first coincidental link between the Joyces and the Childs murder. On 1 September 1899, the day before Thomas Childs was killed, old James died in No.6 Bengal Terrace. His funeral left the house on the Monday and the preparations for it must have taken place over the weekend. The comings and goings of policemen, doctors, relatives and undertakers at No. 5 Bengal Terrace cannot have escaped the attention of mourners for Mr Giltrap, very probably including James Joyce. The inquest on Thomas Childs was opened in 5 Bengal Terrace on the day of Mr Giltrap’s funeral (where the jury viewed the body of Thomas Childs) and actually moved into number 6 to take evidence of a bedridden lady there.

Adrian Hardiman, Joyce in Court (p.155,156)

It seems that Thomas Childs only lived in the house for a year. Thomas Childs is listed as living there in Thom’s Directory 1899, whereas the house is listed as vacant in the Thom’s Directory 1900Thom’s Directory 1898 has a Mr. Edward Kelly living there, as he had done for a number of years.

Joyce changed the house numbers in Newbridge Avenue as the writing of Ulysses moved towards the novel’s  publication. He may have made an error in describing the Child’s house as the last house in Bengal Terrace. But he was not alone. Although Hardiman writes that the Giltrap’s lived in Number 6, Thom’s Directory 1899 lists Thomas Childs as living in Number 5 and a John H. Giltrap as living in number 3 Bengal Terrace, which he had done for a number of years. A Mr. John Hilferty lived at Number 6 Bengal Terrace.

As well as confirming the houses that each of the residents lived in, The Irish Times of Friday September 22 1899, notes a confusion as to the district the murders took place in.

    Mr. Clegg, addressing the magistrate, said that the prisoner, Samuel Childs, was charged with the murder of his own brother under circumstances of extreme and horrifying brutality. The case was known as “The Glasnevin murder” but he believed in fact that the place where the murder occurred was not Glasnevin.

Thom’s Directory lists Bengal Place as being in Finglas, rather than Glasnevin. The terrace was renumbered between 1910 and 1912, with number 5 becoming number 36 and number 6 becoming number 38.

Does any of this matter? Who cares about the names and numbers, people and places, real and imagined? Does it matter whether the murder took place in Finglas or Glasnevin, or that Mr. Giltrap’s first name is given as John and James in different places? Perhaps not. But if your interest is the development of literature, paralleled with the development of a city, then they do. James Joyce’s use of Thom’s Directory is interesting to many scholars, as is his moving of places and events in Dublin to suit his literary needs. In the first case, the moving of house number 10 to house number 9 was probably down to his careful study of Thom’s. In the second case his character’s location of the murder differs from Thom’s and other records such as The Irish Times. Joyce was possibly so familiar with the terrace that he did not check, and Thomas Childs only lived there for a short period of time.

People make mistakes. For the accused, Samuel Childs, mistakes and small details mattered, He was acquitted of the murder of his brother, as acknowledged by Simon Dedalus in Ulysses.

Thomas Childs and James Giltrap lived two doors, and died one day, apart. As they were from different religions they were buried in very different parts of the City.  Vivien Igoe in her book, The Real People of Joyce’s Ulysses notes that James Giltrap died in the Hospice in Harold’s Cross and was moved across the city to be buried in mainly Catholic Prospect Cemetery in Glasnevin, beside his home in Bengal Terrace. James Giltrap, being a Protestant took an almost exactly opposite journey. He died in his home beside Prospect Cemetery, but was buried in Mount Jerome cemetery in Harold’s Cross. The difference between the reality of their two lives, their deaths and their own funeral processions, traversing the River Liffey, in contrast to the fictionalised funeral procession of Paddy Dignam is what I find most interesting.

Route Notes

Most routes in this blogpost involve a lot of advanced planning to create an interesting run and an interesting read. In this case I simply ran the funeral procession route from the Hades episode of Ulysses. It is one of the simplest routes that any of the characters in Ulysses take.

I am always working on a variety of blogposts and as I have developed more of them, they have got more complex both in terms of the running, the research and the writing. In this one picked what I thought was a simple topic of interest and prepared to run.

My original interest and theme was the different house numbers at the start and end of the route, which I think make an interesting counterpoint. As my research developed and the blogpost began to take shape, what became of greater interest was the  story of the closeness of the death, both in time and in space of Thomas Childs and James Giltrap and the difference in their funeral processions.

One interesting aside is that, as noted by Robert Martin Adams in Surface and Symbol, The Consistency of James Joyce’s Ulysses (p.174) Bloom’s client in Ulysses, Alexander Keyes was in reality one of the original jurors on the Childs case.

There are many other events and people that can be linked to this route and episode from Ulysses. I plan to return to it.

Bibliography

Adams, R.M. (1967) Surface and Symbol, The Consistency of James Joyce’s Ulysses, New York, United States: Oxford University Press.

Hardiman, A. (2017). Joyce in Court. 1st ed. London: Head of Zeus.

Gunn, I. and Hart, C. (2004) James Joyce’s Dublin: A Topographical Guide to the Dublin of Ulysses. London, United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson.

Joyce, J. (1998) Ulysses. Edited by Hans Walter Gabler, Wolfhard Steppe, and Claus Melchior. Afterword by Michael Gordon edn. New York, United States: Vintage Books.

Joyce, J. (2015) The Little Review “Ulysses”. Edited by Mark Gaipa, Sean Latham, and Robert Scholes. New Haven, CT, United States: Yale University Press.

McCarthy, J.F. and Rose, D. (1991) Joyce’s Dublin: A Walking Guide to Ulysses. New York, United States: St. Martin’s Press

Nicholson, R. (2015) The Ulysses Guide. Dublin, Ireland: New Island Books.

Igoe, V. (2016) The Real People of Joyce’s Ulysses: A Biographical Guide. Dublin, Ireland: University College Dublin Press.

Click here to see the route details on Runkeeper

grangegormanopens_09

The North House, DIT Grangegorman, formerly the Male House in the Richmond District Lunatic Asylum

dottyville-map

Extract from Ordnance Survey Map of Grangegorman. Survey dated 1888-1913

36_Dottyville

—That fellow I was with in the Ship last night, said Buck Mulligan, says you have g.p.i, He’s up in Dottyville with Conolly Norman. General paralysis of the insane!

James Joyce. Ulysses (Page 6)

Dottyville refers to the Richmond District Lunatic Asylum of which Conolly Norman, an alienist or psychiatrist, was the resident medical superintendent. The asylum subsequently became St. Brendan’s Hospital and the area is commonly known as Granagegorman. Conolly Norman died on 23 February 1908 at his home at St Dymphna’s, which is on the North Circular Road, in front of the new Phoenix Care Centre at the north west corner of the new Grangegorman Campus. There is a biography of Conolly Norman on the Royal Irish Academy website hereDespite the proximity of Grangegorman to Glasnevin Cemetery, Conolly Norman is buried in Mount Jerome on the south side of the River Liffey. The cemetery, which opened in 1836 was originally exclusively used for protestant burials.

Joyce understood Dublin keenly and at one stage lived a small distance from Grangegorman in St. Peter’s Terrace, Cabra. He describes Grangegorman in Finnegans Wake as the platauplain of Grangegorman. This phrase hints at the magnificent views across Dublin, but also the biting wind that sweeps across Grangegorman, where the new DIT campus opened in 2014. There is an interesting article about Grangegorman on the Dublin City Council website here

the rigadoons have held ragtimed revels on the platauplain of Grangegorman

James Joyce. Finnegans Wake (Page 236)

The meanings of words and phrases that Joyce compounded for Finnegans Wake are brilliantly explained on the website www.finwake.com and the Grangegorman reference is explained here if you scroll down to page 236. Dottyville is another obvious compound word. Glynn Anderson writes in his book Birds of Ireland, Facts, Folklore & History that the word Dotty is derived from the dotterel bird, known in Irish as Amadán móinteach, or “bog idiot”, because it was so docile it was easily captured by humans.

Joyce’s daughter Lucia suffered from mental health issues. She went on an ill fated trip to Ireland, arriving on St.Patrick’s Day 1935, where she ran amok and amongst other erratic behaviour, lit a fire in the middle of her room in the house in Meath Road, Bray. There were other bizarre incidents described in detail in Carol Loeb Shloss’s biography  Lucia Joyce, To Dance in the Wake. Joyce eventually found out about the events in Ireland. Brenda Maddox writes,

As all of this went on, Joyce protested that no one wrote to Nora and him. That was not true. Eileen had wired him of her alarm but Joyce brushed her off: ‘The scenes that scared you and Miss Weaver are nothing to speak of. Her mother stood four years of much worse than that.’ Nonetheless he asked Constantine Curran, with his wife and daughter , to drive down to Bray to see what was going on. It did not take them long to see that Lucia was living in disorder and was incapable of looking after herself. Mrs. Curran and Elizabeth sorted out Lucia’s beautiful clothes, which were in a terrible heap. Even as Lucia, who was a heavy smoker, watched them, hew tweed jacket caught fire from a box of matches in her pocket.
    Alarmed at what they found, Curran wrote at length to Nora rather than to Joyce. He recommended taking Lucia to see an American-trained psychoanalytic doctor in Dublin. Joyce, annoyed because Curran had not reported directly to him and distrustful of psychoanalysts, cabled immediately that no such appointment was to take place. Joyce was resolved to continue with his strategy of allowing Lucia total freedom, seeing that all medical attempts at restraint had filed, The one thing Lucia hated, he knew, was being under surveillance.

Brenda Maddox. Nora (Pages 411, 412)

Lucia ended her trip with a three week stay in Farnham House, an asylum in Finglas, just to the north of Grangegorman. She left Ireland in July of the same year. Later she was resident in St.Andrews Hospital, formerly the Northampton General Lunatic Asylum, in Northamptonshire, England, where she lived from 1951 until her death in 1982. Whilst there she had visits from Samuel Beckett and Miss Weaver, Joyce’s patron. It is interesting to speculate that if Joyce had returned to Ireland, Lucia may herself have ended up in Grangegorman.

Bibliography

Joyce, J. (1998) Ulysses. Edited by Hans Walter Gabler, Wolfhard Steppe, and Claus Melchior. Afterward by Michael Gordon edn. New York, United States: Vintage Books.

Joyce, J. (2000) Finnegans Wake. Introduction by Seamus Deane edn. London, United Kingdom: Penguin Books.

Maddox, B. (1988) Nora: A Biography of Nora Joyce. London, United Kingdom: Hamish Hamilton.

Shloss, C.L. (2005) Lucia Joyce: To Dance in the Wake. London, United Kingdom: Bloomsbury.

Click here to see the route details on Runkeeper

34_TheyFoundTheGrave

—They tell the story, he said, that two drunks came out here one foggy evening to look for the grave of a friend of theirs. They asked for Mulcahy from the Coombe and were told where he was buried. After traipsing about in the fog they found the grave sure enough. One of the drunks spelt out the name: Terence Mulcahy. The other drunk was blinking up at a statue of Our Saviour the widow had got put up.
The caretaker blinked up at one of the sepulchres they passed. He resumed:
—And, after blinking up at the sacred figure, Not a bloody bit like the man, says he. That’s not Mulcahy, says he, whoever done it.

James Joyce. Ulysses (Page 88)

James Joyce was not the first born of John Stanislaus Joyce and May Murray. They had a son born on 23rd November 1880, some seven months after their wedding. The baby lived for eight days. Wyse Jackson and Costello say that the birth took place at home in Ontario Terrace whereas Ken Monaghan, who’s mother May was one of James Joyce’s sisters, in his book Joyce’s Dublin Family, says the boy was born in 47 Northumberland Avenue in Kingstown, now Dun Laoghaire. Regardless of the uncertainty of the birth, the baby was to be the first Joyce to be buried in the family plot in Glasnevin.

For the funeral, John bought a plot in Prospect Cemetery, Glasnevin, where he knew the Superintendent, David Malins. This was the only estate he would manage to hold on to until his own death. Glasnevin was on the northern outskirts of the city; the large graveyard there had the melancholy distinction of being ‘the Irish Valhalla’, as the burial place of, among other national heroes, Daniel O’Connell, who had helped to create it as an almost exclusively Catholic Cemetery. There were very few mourners at the freezing graveside; even the baby’s mother was not there – as it was not then customary for women to attend funerals.

John Wyse Jackson and Peter Costello. John Stanislaus Joyce (Page 100)

    Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.

James Joyce. Ulysses (Page 90)

I have speculated elsewhere in this blog (Who was M’Intosh? December 23rd, 2014), about the man in the macintosh being a version of Stanislaus Joyce, but it was Stanislaus who noted that the impressions for the funeral scene in Ulysses must have been gathered from the two family funerals Joyce attended in the cemetery.

As Jim disliked funerals and avoided going to them , his impressions for the ‘Hades’ episode of Ulysses must have been gathered either at my mother’s funeral or at my younger brother Georgie’s. He was never in the cemetery again.

Stanislaus Joyce. My Brother’s Keeper (Page 235)

A headstone seems not to have been erected until after John Stanislaus Joyce’s death on the 29th December 1931, over fifty years since the plot was opened.

In accordance with the instructions from his father’s ghost (so the son suggested), the gravestone for Glasnevin was soon commissioned (via Alfie Bergan) from Harrison’s, who had done the arms of Dublin for the North City Markets in 1892. Bergan had heard directly from John Stanislaus that the inscription was to mention only John himself and his wife May. There would be nothing about the other Joyces in the same plot, not even poor Georgie or Baby.

John Wyse Jackson and Peter Costello. John Stanislaus Joyce (Page 425)

James Joyce could not have attended the first burial in the Joyce family plot. He could have attended the last, but chose not to return home for it, despite being named as his father’s sole heir. One of the curious aspects of the headstone is that there is no religious iconography. The white stone is surrounded by dark headstones, complete with obvious crucifix adornments. John Stanislaus left explicit instructions that only his name, and that of his wife were to appear on the headstone. The white colour, in stark contrast to those surrounding it, may have been chosen to indicate that children were also interred, white being the traditional colour of children’s coffins.

Bibliography

Costello, P. and Jackson, J.W. (1998) John Stanislaus Joyce: The Voluminous Life and Genius of James Joyce’s Father. London, United Kingdom: Fourth Estate.

Joyce, J. (1998) Ulysses. Edited by Hans Walter Gabler, Wolfhard Steppe, and Claus Melchior. Afterward by Michael Gordon edn. New York, United States: Vintage Books.

Joyce, S. (2003) My Brother’s Keeper: James Joyce’s Early Years. Edited by Richard Ellmann. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Da Capo Press.
Monaghan, K. (2005) Joyce’s Dublin Family. Dublin: The James Joyce Centre.
jj21k_Glasnevin_01

Glasnevin Cemetery: 15 June 2015

jj21k_Glasnevin_02

Glasnevin Cemetery: 15 June 2015

Click here to see the route details on Runkeeper

33_AgonisingChrist

—Agonising Christ, wouldn’t it give you a heartburn on your arse?

James Joyce. Ulysses (Page 102)

James Joyce’s father, John Stanislaus Joyce has many of the best lines in Joyce’s writings and appears in many different guises. Most obviously he appears as Simon Dedalus in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man as well as in Ulysses.

He was born in Cork on July 4th 1849. He is described in A Portrait:

    Stephen began to enumerate glibly his father’s attributes.
—A medical student, an oarsman, a tenor, an amateur actor, a shouting politician, a small landlord, a small investor, a drinker, a good fellow, a storyteller, somebody’s secretary, something in a distillery, a taxgatherer, a bankrupt and at present a praiser of his own past.

James Joyce. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Page 213)

John Stanislaus Joyce died in Dublin on 29th December 1931, where he had been living on Claude Road in Drumcondra.

In early 1934, Paul Léon wrote to Constantine Curran saying that James Joyce wanted a bench erected on Whitworth Road , opposite Claude Road, and Curran replied saying that he had been in touch with the Corporation regarding siting. (The James Joyce Paul Léon Papers, page 90). I ran by and there is neither bench, nor space for one as Whitworth Road has no footpath on the southern side, opposite Claude Road. I doubled back up alongside the canal, with the railway separating the canal from Whitworth Road. This beautiful section of the canal would be a very fitting place for a bench.

A shared bench dedicated to father and son was finally erected in St. Stephen’s Green on June 14th 1977 and is described in John Stanislaus Joyce, The Voluminous Life and Genius of James Joyce’s Father, (page 438) by John Wyse Jackson and Peter Costello. The text on the bench dedication reads:

In memory of James Joyce, Dubliner and his father John Stanislaus Joyce, Corkonian. 6th International James Joyce Symposium 1977.

John Stanislaus Joyce divided opinion. This may be why the bench is shared and he is pointedly described as being a Corkonian. Stanislaus Joyce had an uncharitable view of his father, which is continuously expressed in his book, My Brother’s Keeper, James Joyce’s Early Years.

In more jovial moments he would tell the fable, culled from Aesop or who knows what medieval bestiary, of how a fox gets rid of its fleas. When the fox is plagued by fleas, he explained , it jumps into the river and swims about until all the fleas collect on its nose. Then it gives one good whiff and blows them all into the water. That’s what he would do with the whole bloody lot of us, with the help of God and His Holy Mother, and go back to Cork. He would quote Goldsmith’s lines,

And as a hare, whom hounds and horns pursue,
Pants at the place from whence at first he flew,
I still had hopes, my long vexatious past,
There to return – and die at home at last.

I’ll get rid of you all and go back to Cork. But I will break your hearts before I go. Oh yes by God! See if I don’t. I’ll break your hearts, but I’ll break your stomachs first.

Stanislaus Joyce. My Brother’s Keeper (Page 240)

John Stanislaus Joyce never returned to Cork. There is an old Dublin saying about Cork people, told to me by my own father. When they get off the train in Hueston Station they throw a stone in the Liffey. And if it floats they go home.

Bibliography

Costello, P. and Jackson, J.W. (1998) John Stanislaus Joyce: The Voluminous Life and Genius of James Joyce’s Father. London, United Kingdom: Fourth Estate.

Fahy, C. (ed.) (1992) The James Joyce – Paul Léon Papers. Dublin, Ireland: National Library of Ireland.

Joyce, J. (1998) Ulysses. Edited by Hans Walter Gabler, Wolfhard Steppe, and Claus Melchior. Afterward by Michael Gordon edn. New York, United States: Vintage Books.

Joyce, J. (2007) A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Authoritative Text, Backgrounds and Contexts Criticism. Edited by John Paul Riquelme, Hans Walter Gabler, and Walter Hettche. New York, United States: Norton, W. W. & Company.

Joyce, S. (2003) My Brother’s Keeper: James Joyce’s Early Years. Edited by Richard Ellmann. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Da Capo Press.

Click here to see the route details on Runkeeper

20_Outcast

   When he gained the crest of the Magazine Hill he halted and looked along the river towards Dublin, the lights of which burned redly and hospitably in the cold night. He looked down the slope and, at the base, in the shadow of the wall of the Park, he saw some human figures lying. Those venal and furtive loves filled him with despair. He gnawed the rectitude of his life; he felt that he had been outcast from life’s feast. One human being had seemed to love him and he had denied her life and happiness: he had sentenced her to ignominy, a death of shame. He knew that the prostrate creatures down by the wall were watching him and wished him gone. No-one wanted him; he was outcast from life’s feast. He turned his eyes to the grey gleaming river, winding along towards Dublin. Beyond the river he saw a goods train winding out of Kingsbridge Station, like a worm with a fiery head winding through the darkness, obstinately and laboriously. It passed slowly out of sight but still he heard in his ears the laborious drone of the engine reiterating the syllables of her name.

James Joyce. A Painful Case, Dubliners (Page 98)

Joyce links the train stations of Sydney Parade where Mrs. Sinico is the subject of a tragic accident and Kingsbridge, now Hueston Station, which Mr. Duffy overlooks from the Magazine Fort in the Phoenix Park as he makes his way home to Chapelizod. Joyce uses the syllables in her name to evoke the sound of the departing goods train. Joyce took the name Sinico from Giuseppe Sinico, his singing teacher in Trieste.

I ran down and around the Magazine Fort, looking down to Hueston Station. It is now difficult to see the trains as the foreground view is obscured by buildings, but by reputation there are still furtive loves taking place in the Park as darkness falls.

Mrs. Sinico appears in Ulysses on a number of occasions relating to her internment in Glasnevin Cemetery, which Bloom attended.

    He compressed between 2 fingers the flesh circumjacent to a cicatrice in the left infracostal region below the diaphragm resulting from a sting infected 2 weeks and 3 days previously (23x May 1904) by a bee. He scratched imprecisely with his right hand, though insensible of prurition, various points and surfaces of his partly exposed, wholly abluted skin. He inserted his left hand into the left lower pocket of his waistcoat and extracted and replaced a silver coin (I shilling), placed there (presumably) on the occasion (17 October 1903) of the interment of Mrs Emily Sinico, Sydney Parade.

James Joyce. Ulysses (Page 584)

Bibliography

Joyce, J. (1998) Ulysses. Edited by Hans Walter Gabler, Wolfhard Steppe, and Claus Melchior. Afterward by Michael Gordon edn. New York, United States: Vintage Books.

Joyce, J. (2006) Dubliners, Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism. Edited by Margot Norris, Hans Walter Gabler, and Walter Hettche. New York, United States: Norton, W. W. & Company.

Click here to see the route details on Runkeeper

14_HeisDead

The Death of Parnell

6th October, 1891

He cleared his throat once or twice and then began to recite:

He is dead. Our Uncrowned King is dead.
O, Erin, mourn with grief and woe
For he lies dead whom the fell gang
Of modern hypocrites laid low.

He lies slain by the coward hounds
He raised to glory from the mire:
And Erin’s hopes and Erin’s dreams
Perish upon her monarch’s pyre.

In palace, cabin or in cot
The Irish heart where’er it be
Is bowed with woe—for he is gone
Who would have wrought her destiny.

He would have had his Erin famed,
The green flag gloriously unfurled,
Her statesmen, bards and warriors raised
Before the nations of the world.

He dreamed (alas, ‘twas but a dream!)
Of Liberty: but as he strove
To clutch that idol, treachery
Sundered him from the thing he loved.

Shame on the coward, caitiff hands
That smote their Lord or with a kiss
Betrayed him to the rabble-rout
Of fawning priests—no friends of his!

May everlasting shame consume
The memory of those who tried
To befoul and smear th’exalted name
Of one who spurned them in his pride!

He fell as fall the mighty ones,
Nobly undaunted to the last,
And death has now united him
With Erin’s heroes of the past.

No sound of strife disturb his sleep!
Calmly he rests: no human pain
Or high ambition spurs him now
The peaks of glory to attain.

They had their way: they laid him low.
But Erin, list, his spirit may
Rise, like the Phoenix from the flames,
When breaks the dawning of the day,

The day that brings us Freedom’s reign.
And on that day may Erin well
Pledge in the cup she lifts to Joy
One grief—the memory of Parnell.

    Mr. Hynes sat down again on the table. When he had finished his recitation there was a silence and then a burst of clapping: even Mr. Lyons clapped. The applause continued for a little time. When it had ceased all the auditors drank from their bottles in silence.

James Joyce. Ivy Day in the Committee Room (pages 114-116)

October 6th is Ivy Day, the commemoration of the death of Charles Stewart Parnell who died in 1891 and the story centres around Parnell and his downfall, and finishes with this poem..

I ran to Glasnevin Cemetery to pass Parnell’s grave but also to look at the grave of James Joyce’s parents, John Stanislaus Joyce (of Cork) 1849 -1939 and Mary Jane (of Dublin) 1859 – 1903

The two graves are on opposite sides of a path from each other, both a short distance from the main entrance. You can see Parnell’s grave on the left of this Google Street View Image and the Joyce Family plot on the right

There is a lot of information on the Glasnevin Trust Website here. A brief article on the family, complete with Patrick Tuohy’s portrait of John Stanislaus Joyce is hereand a most interesting .pdf from the Glasnevin trust can be viewed and downloaded here

Several of Joyce’s siblings are buried in the plot and I will expand on this in a further post.

Bibliography

Joyce, J. (2006) Dubliners, Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism. Edited by Margot Norris, Hans Walter Gabler, and Walter Hettche. New York, United States: Norton, W. W. & Company.

Click here to see the route details on Runkeeper

13_ThePriestsPawns

—What I mean, said Mr Lyons, is we have our ideals. Why, now, would we welcome a man like that? Do you think now after what he did Parnell was a fit man to lead us? And why, then, would we do it for Edward the Seventh?
—This is Parnell’s anniversary, said Mr O’Connor, and don’t let us stir up any bad blood. We all respect him now that he’s dead and gone—even the Conservatives, he added, turning to Mr Crofton.

James Joyce, Ivy Day in the Committee Room, Dubliners (Pages 113)

In Dubliners the story Ivy Day in The Committee Room is about Charles Stewart Parnell and his position in Ireland. Arguments take place when the forthcoming visit of Edward VII is mentioned and he is compared to Parnell.

Consider the passage from Dubliners and compare it with this passage from A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

—Let him remember too, cried Mr Casey to her from across the table, the language with which the priests and the priests’ pawns broke Parnell’s heart and hounded him into his grave. Let him remember that too when he grows up.
—Sons of bitches! cried Mr Dedalus. When he was down they turned on him to betray him and rend him like rats in a sewer. Lowlived dogs! And they look it! By Christ, they look it!
—They behaved rightly, cried Dante. They obeyed their bishops and their priests. Honour to them!

James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Page 29)

Parnell seems to divide opinion, even at times in the same person. In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Dante has two separate brushes.

    Dante had two brushes in her press. The brush with the maroon velvet back was for Michael Davitt and the brush with the green velvet back was for Parnell.

James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Page 5)

Parnell is mentioned in Ulysses and the place of his grave, Glasnevin Cemetery features strongly, but his brother John Howard appears in several real and imagined episodes:

Bloom sees him,

   The sun freed itself slowly and lit glints of light among the silverware opposite in Walter Sexton’s window by which John Howard Parnell passed, unseeing.
    There he is: the brother. Image of him. Haunting face. Now that’s a coincidence. Course hundreds of times you think of a person and don’t meet him. Like a man walking in his sleep. No-one knows him. Must be a corporation meeting today. They say he never put on the city marshal’s uniform since he got the job.”

James Joyce, Ulysses (Page 135)

As do Buck Mulligan and Haines,

    As they trod across the thick carpet Buck Mulligan whispered behind his Panama to Haines:
— Parnell’s brother. There in the corner.
    They chose a small table near the window, opposite a longfaced man whose beard and gaze hung intently down on a chessboard.
— Is that he? Haines asked, twisting round in his seat.
— Yes, Mulligan said. That’s John Howard, his brother, our city marshal.

James Joyce, Ulysses (Page 204)

And later he appears in Nighttown

JOHN HOWARD PARNELL
(raises the royal standard) Illustrious Bloom! Successor to my famous brother!
BLOOM
(embraces John Howard Parnell) We thank you from our heart, John, for this right royal welcome to green Erin, the promised land of our common ancestors.

James Joyce, Ulysses (Page 394)

Parnell is clearly an important figure for Joyce. I came across a reference to a Picture Postcard of Parnell’s grave that was given to Sylvia Beach by James Joyce.

The reference is on Page 217 of the following: Manuscripts & Letters at the University of Buffalo, A Catalogue. Compiled and with an Introduction by Peter Spielberg. Published by the University of Buffalo in 1962 and available online here: http://library.buffalo.edu/pl/collections/jamesjoyce/pdf/spielberg238.pdf

I wondered what the postcard looked like so I searched online. There is one on sale on Ebay which you can see here.

The card is from a photograph from the Lawrence Collection which can be viewed online here and has many interesting historical photographs that you can purchase.

The same photograph with much more publishing details can be viewed online at The National Library of Ireland website here: http://catalogue.nli.ie/Record/vtls000041272

The grave itself is a short walk from Saint Peter’s Terrace which Joyce moved into in 1902, where his mother passed away in 1903 and the last address that he lived in with his father John Joyce. The run from Grangegorman passes Saint Peter’s Terrace and goes to the cemetery and back via Connaught Street, Ulster Street, Munster Street and Leinster Street North…all streets that James Joyce would have been familiar with in his walks around the North Inner City.

Bibliography

Joyce, J. (1998) Ulysses. Edited by Hans Walter Gabler, Wolfhard Steppe, and Claus Melchior. Afterward by Michael Gordon edn. New York, United States: Vintage Books.

Joyce, J. (2006) Dubliners, Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism. Edited by Margot Norris, Hans Walter Gabler, and Walter Hettche. New York, United States: Norton, W. W. & Company.

Joyce, J. (2007) A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Authoritative Text, Backgrounds and Contexts Criticism. Edited by John Paul Riquelme, Hans Walter Gabler, and Walter Hettche. New York, United States: Norton, W. W. & Company.

Click here to see the route details on Runkeeper

%d bloggers like this: